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16.- Presente perfecto

16.- Presente Perfecto


18.1.- Formación
1.1.- Afirmativo: Suj + presente de to have + participio. Ej: I have played, you have gone, he has spoken.
1.2.- Negativo: Suj + presente de to have + not + participio. Ej: I have not gone, you have not played, he has not spoken.
1.3.- Interrogativo: Presente de to have + suj + participio. Have I gone?, have you played?, has he spoken?.

18.2.- Notas
* Contracciones del sujeto con el presente de to have: I have ==> I've; you have ==> you've; he has ==> he's; she has ==> she's; it has ==> it's; they have ==> they've
* Contracciones verbo to have + not: have not ==> haven't; has not ==> hasn't.
* No confundir las contracciones he's, she's e it's Ej: He's going => he is going (Presente Progresivo) pero he's gone => he has gone (Presente Perfecto)

18.3.- Usos
1 Para acciones acabadas cuando el tiempo no es indicado. Si nos interesa cuando ocurre la acción usamos el Pasado Simple.

Ej: I've seen Madonna in concert. I saw Madonna in concert last summer.
2 Para acciones que empezaron en el pasado y aun no han acabado.
3 Uso con just => acabar de.

Ej: I've just seen her.
4 Usos con never y ever.

Ej: I have never been in Moscow. The most beautiful girl I have ever seen.

Ejemplo de conjugación de un verbo en Presente Perfecto

Afirmativo Negativo Interrogativo
I have spoken I have not spoken have I spoken?
You have spoken You have not spoken have you spoken?
He has spoken He has not spoken has he spoken?
She has spoken She has not spoken has she spoken?
It has spoken It has not spoken has it spoken?
We have spoken We have not spoken have we spoken?
They have spoken They have not spoken have they spoken?